MarRINav Reports

The documents and reports produced and delivered to ESA under the MarRINav project are all available on this page.

The documents range from summaries of the whole project, through to the detailed research, conclusions, and the recommendations made by the project team.

Please click the document title to view and then download it.

For project enquiries please contact the NLA International team at

Summary Documents

Abstract – A brief description of the project purpose, with its main conclusions and recommendations.

Executive Summary Report – A high-level paper that explains the context for MarRINav and gives the main conclusions and recommendations, including the conceptual PNT architecture solution and the cost benefit analysis.

Summary Report – This paper describes the context, conclusions and recommendations.  It goes further and includes high-level descriptions of each discrete element of the project.

Final Report – A stand-alone document that describes all of the activities undertaken by the project team, at a high-level. It includes greater detail for each Work Package, taking the reader on a journey from the need for a complementary system-of-systems should GNSS-based PNT be lost or degraded, to a recommended infrastructure architecture to support the UK Critical National Infrastructure.

Work Package Deliverable Documents

D1 Maritime Context and Requirements The document presents the maritime requirements and context for the work of the other work packages of the project and any subsequent follow-on Phases. Maritime Context is presented from several points of view, including maritime Critical National Infrastructure (CNI) users and applications which encompass vessels, ports, pilots, aids to navigation etc.

We consider the evolution of the core source of PNT, multi-constellation, multi-frequency GNSS, and identify use cases for its applications in the 2030 timeframe, focusing on a scenario of a container ship’s berth-to berth voyage phases and port operations for cargo unloading and transfer.

The aim is to understand where PNT information is used within the maritime supply chain, aboard ship and within shore-side support systems and services, for example Vessel Traffic Service (VTS), future e-Navigation services and Port Collaborative Decision making (PCDM). We also identify, where applicable, the Required Navigation Performance (RNP) parameter values for those activities in terms of accuracy, integrity, continuity and availability.

D2 EGNOS Beacons Initial Report Satellite navigation systems such as GPS or Galileo are unable on their own to provide the PNT integrity required for safety-of-life use. For this reason, augmentation systems, such as maritime radio beacon Differential GPS (DGPS) or the European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service (EGNOS) support GPS positioning and raise warning messages to users should the GPS signals become unreliable. This document describes the technical approach to a performance comparison of the EGNOS system and DGPS beacons, using simulation software.

D3a EGNOS and Beacons Final ReportThe analysis presented in this report has attempted to answer two related questions using simulation and real-world data:

  1. Does EGNOS satisfy the maritime requirement for 10m (95%) positioning accuracy, (with 98% availability) for ships throughout the extensive waters of the UK and Ireland, especially towards the western edge of the EGNOS service coverage area near the extremities of the Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs)?
  1. Do IALA beacons continue to have a beneficial role when a maritime EGNOS V2 ‘A.1046 service’ becomes available, as expected in 2022?

D3b GNSS Integrity This report provides a detailed explanation of issues and potential solutions concerning the use of Satellite Based Augmentation Systems (SBAS) and Maritime Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (M-RAIM) in the provision of user-level integrity and continuity for GNSS-based positioning in the future maritime environment. Those solutions are aimed at the 2025 timescale and beyond, for implementation in a vessel’s future Multi-Constellation Multi System Receiver (MSR). This report looks beyond the introduction of the ‘EGNOS V2 A.1046 maritime service’, to user-level integrity solutions that may derive from EGNOS Version 3 (V3), covering both GPS and Galileo and dual frequency (L1/L5 and E1/E5a) operation. In particular, a detailed mathematical description of M-RAIM is provided to invite the global PNT community to contribute to its further development.

D4 PNT R&I Technologies and Integration – This document reviews the broad range of technology options for R&I (Resilience and Integrity) of PNT, analysing the potential contribution of each option. Candidates include wide-area systems such as eLoran and the Satelles System Timing and Location (STL), regional area systems such as MF R-Mode and VDES R-Mode and local-area systems with local infrastructure such as LOCATA at ports. The study includes the use of ships’ radars with coastal Enhanced Radar Beacons (‘eRacons’). In addition, the paper includes a description of ship-based systems such as dead reckoning based on speed log and gyro compass and electronic visual aids such as the ePelorus.

D5 Conceptual PNT Infrastructure – The UK maritime resilient PNT conceptual solution is presented as a hybrid system-of-systems combining satellite and terrestrial PNT technologies. Integrated navigation performance is analysed and predictions of geographical service coverage for various configurations are evaluated as 95% accuracy contours across UK and Irish waters. Terrestrial components of the architecture are geographically limited to being sited within the UK, insofar as a UK-only solution is feasible. However, full coverage of all UK ports and high risk shipping areas (such as approaches to the Channel) is found to require a small number of additional terrestrial transmitters (eLoran at Sylt in Germany, or French VDES R-Mode transmitters around Calais).  The architecture extends to operations in ports, with the aim of ensuring the resilience and integrity of PNT across the land/sea interface in the logistics chain.

D6 MSR Integration ReportThis report considers aspects of the maritime Multi System Receiver design required to maximise the effectiveness of the PNT solution architecture and the use of maritime EGNOS V3. In a preliminary study requiring further investigation, the integrity and continuity performance budgets are partitioned over the various elements of the MSR, including SBAS (EGNOS), M-RAIM, GNSS interference detection and the resilient PNT backup system. Additionally, considering the user-level integrity of the system-of-system elements and of their integrated PNT solution, the feasibility of Fault Detection and Fault Detection with Exclusion are investigated. Integration architectures and filter approaches are described for the determination of the best overall hybrid PNT solution.

D7 Outline Development PlanThe component positioning technologies of the MarRINav system-of-systems concept are currently at differing levels of technical maturity, as indicated by their Technology Readiness Level, explained previously in D4.  Hence, further research and development is required to grow the maturity of these individual systems and to demonstrate their combination as a hybrid PNT system-of systems solution for UK maritime CNI. This report sets out an ‘Outline Development Plan’ to progress the next technical steps of the PNT solution as a test-bed demonstrator.

D8 Cost Benefit Analysis Report – This report analyses the economic rationale for investment in the resilient system-of-systems (SoS) identified in the technical analysis in previous reports. The CBA considers the central economic case of maritime transportation and assumes that one 5-day wide area outage of GNSS will take place within the next 10 years, with certainty. The analysis focusses on container ships only. The economic assumption is drawn upon a selection of 10 major ports which handle 90.5% of the economic value attributable to maritime transport of containers. The CBA evaluates the net present value of the MarRINav system-of-systems to be positive and equal to £221m. This is equivalent to a benefit-cost-ratio of 2.2.

D9 Stakeholder Engagement Report – This report summarises the activities undertaken relating to Stakeholder Engagement, and in particular collates the outputs from the Stakeholder Engagement Workshop (15th May 2019) and the Dissemination Workshop (5th December 2019).

D10 Initial Roadmap and Plans – The MarRINav Roadmap looks ahead to 2032 at the opportunities for high-integrity resilient Position, Navigation, and Timing (PNT) within the UK maritime sector.   Building on the work undertaken as part of the MarRINav project, the roadmap is the culmination of MarRINav stage 1, and is also designed to enable production and planning for stage 2. It outlines the high-level strategic steps needed to develop a fully resilient UK Critical National Infrastructure to mitigate the risk of GNSS failure.